A Western pattern diet has been shown to be related to a higher risk of colon and distal cancer in women, according to a study in the Clinical Nutrition journal.
Among participants of the study (n = 121,272), recruited in Japan as part of the Japan Public Health Centre-based Prospective Study cohort I (1990) or cohort II (1993), and followed from the five-year survey (around 1995-1998) through to De 31, 2012, a total of 2,482 new patients with colorectal cancer were identified and three dietary patterns confirmed – Western, traditional and ‘prudent’.
“The prudent pattern was characterised by high intakes of vegetables, fruit, noodles, potatoes, soy products, mushrooms and seaweed. The westernised pattern was heavily loaded on meat and processed meat, eel, dairy foods, fruit juice, coffee, tea, soft beverages, sauces and alcohol. The traditional dietary pattern had high loadings of pickles, seafood, fish (oily-, salty-, lean-fish and salmon), chicken and sake (males only),” the authors reported.
“The main finding of our study was that the prudent dietary pattern was associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer in the men, whereas a westernised dietary pattern was found to be associated with an increased risk of colon and distal cancer in women.
The researchers suggested that increased risk in colorectal cancer observed in the study may be due to the interaction effect of a prudent dietary pattern and reflects more complex food components and dietary behaviour than individual foods, such as fruit and vegetables. They also suggested that the higher loadings of high-starch and high-fat foods among women may be a possible explanation, although an association between these foods and rectal cancer is unclear.
Colorectal cancer has risen significantly in Japan over the past three decades. The study concluded that a dietary approach, based on dietary patterns, has significance for the prevention of colorectal cancer.